Is Ryzen RISC or CISC?

(Note:  We may earn commissions from products/services you click on.  This is at no extra cost to you.)

Table of Contents

Having already dealt with computing, today, we will enter a somewhat more modern era. Many will consider it the golden age of computing, the one in which the concept of today’s computers germinated and the most contemporary age of information began to take shape.

Let’s place ourselves in the last years of the 1950s: the processors are developing entirely independently, meaning the same program had to be modified to run on different machines.  It was a situation that had to change.

CISC goes in search of the most complete

In the 1950s, all computers are designing in complete isolation from each other.  This has made its instructions independent, creating a program written for a specific computer unable to run on another. At the end of the decade, IBM brought together a group of its researchers to study how a program could work on multiple computers without significant changes, expanding the software’s compatibility on different machines. The CISC approach, Complex Instruction Set Computing, was first introduced in the IBM System / 360 on April 7, 1964.

RISC, with simplicity as a flag

After the CISC launch, IBM scientists began to see that software designers created their own more straightforward and precise instructions. Then, as early as the 1970s, they began to design an alternative that is introduced to the market under the acronym RISC, Reduced Instruction Set Computing. The IBM 801, which began being manufactured in 1975, was designed by John Cocke and is considered the first RISC processor in history. RISC’s main virtue is having an elementary set of instructions that will execute faster on the processor.



Is Ryzen RISC or CISC?


CISC was born to homogenize the different computers in the 50s and 60s. RISC sought in the 70s to go one step further and improve performance with more straightforward instructions but longer and more complicated programs to develop.

Both CISC and RISC have evolved significantly since their genesis, adopting improvements from the opposite in both cases and new sets of instructions to adapt to computers’ uses. Although the difference was vast at the time of its creation, mainly due to the technical limitations of the time both in memory size and processing speed, the requirements are very different in today’s modern computing. The limits on storage capacity are almost non-existent, and the processors can execute millions of instructions in a single second.

The tremendous current battle is that of its two great exponents, ARM and x86, who have updated their objectives to what matters to the users in the 21st century. We will see that ARM’s strong point is in energy efficiency. An ARM chip consumes much less energy than an x86 processor that has its great virtue in its high performance at the cost of consuming much more energy. The great battle that the next entries will occupy us.

RISC-V vs. ARM and x86

Among the arguments used by the proponents of this architecture is the fact that both Intel and AMD or ARM-based manufacturers are very focused on specific applications and not on the modularity of the designs that are possible with the RISC-V architecture.

The other key factor is, of course, the fact that RISC-V is Open Source. This philosophy’s success in the software world has been applying with less popularity to that of hardware.

Click this affiliate link to order your AMD Ryzen 7 3700X Desktop Processor

what is risc and cisc?”

A central aspect of the CPU architecture is harnessing the microprocessor synchronizing cycles microprocessor and instructions. You will have to find out if your computer has a RISC and a CISC microprocessor to determine this. The use of desktops and laptops in business is a basic necessity for any company. When you decide to buy fast and efficient computer equipment, you must consider several aspects.

One of the first considerations is the speed of your computer’s microprocessor. It is an essential component of your computer; you can expand your information by checking the microprocessor functions. But that number alone is not enough to know precisely how fast data is processed and commands are executed. Speed is measured using Megahertz (MHz) or Gigahertz (GHz).

RISC microprocessors

The term RISC microprocessor stands for “Reduced Instruction Set Computer.” It means that RISC microprocessors use a simple set of instructions to read and process data.

A RISC computer is a computer that uses only simple commands that can be divided into multiple instructions. In this way, they manage to execute a low-level operation within a single cycle, hence their name. These simple sets of instructions are typically completed in one computer clock cycle. They are also measured by the number of oscillator pulses per second that your computer’s processor can handle.

CISC microprocessors

The term CISC microprocessor stands for “Complex Instruction Set Computer. ” As its name suggests, the CISC microprocessor executes complex commands using fewer lines of code. A CISC computer is a computer where individual instructions can perform numerous low-level operations. 

It is a CPU design plan that is based on unique commands, which are experts in executing multi-step operations.

Click this affiliate link to order your AMD Ryzen 7 3700X Desktop Processor

Is intel risc or cisc?

As stated previously, the set of instructions implemented on Intel processors is of the CISC type. Also, this part will differ greatly from that devoted to RISC processors, the main characteristics of which are recalled here for comparison:

  • constant-size instructions aligned in memory;
  • the low number of instruction formats;
  • a large number of registers;
  • load / store architecture .

You may also recall that the RISC concept favors “simple” operations. The small number of instruction formats allows rapid decoding and anticipation in the reading of operands.

Intel processors all provide full binary compatibility. Also, someone will do a study of the instruction set that will, through that of the latest Intel processor, the Pentium, which constitutes a superset of the instruction sets (the reader can consult [3] and [12] for more details. on this subject).

Data types

Intel processors recognize the following basic types: bytes, words, double-word, and quadruple-word (64-bit). The processors store the data in a little-endian format; therefore, the least significant byte is kept at the lowest address.

Addressing modes

Like all processors, the current addressing modes (absolute, indirect, based, indexed) are implementing in a single instruction. Intel processors have an additional addressing mode, index-based addressing.

The method of calculating the address is determined in the byte immediately following the opcode. In addition to the addressed segment, which can be defined explicitly by the prefix of the instruction or else implicitly using, by default, the content of the appropriate segment register, four elements are used to calculate the address:

  • a relocation ;
  • a basic register;
  • an index register;
  • a scale factor allows the index register’s contents to be multiplied by 2, 4, or 8.

Since the instructions’ size isn’t fixed, all the components useful for calculating the address can be present in the same education, which has the effect of obtaining indexed-based addressing: base + (index * factor of scale) + constant.

Difference between Risc and Cisc

RISC and CISC are characterizations of computer instruction sets that are part of the computer architecture; they differ by their complexity, instruction and data formats, their addressing modes, their registers, their specifications, and their flow control mechanisms, etc.

Definition of RISC

Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC): Instruction sets typically contain less than 100 instructions and use a fixed instruction format (32-bit). It uses a few simple addressing modes. Register-based instructions are used, which means that a register-to-register mechanism is used.

Definition of CISC

Complex Instruction Set (CISC) contains approximately 120 to 350 instructions. It uses variable instruction/data formats but a small set of general-purpose registers, namely 8-24. The reason for the large instruction sets is the use of variable format instructions.

Main differences between RISC and CISC

In RISC, the instruction set size is small, while in CISC, the instruction set size is large.

RISC uses a fixed (32-bit) format and mostly register-based instructions, while CISC uses variable designs ranging from 16 to 64 bits per instruction.

RISC uses a single clock and a limited addressing mode (i.e., 3-5). On the other hand, CISC uses several addressing modes from 12 to 24 Clocks.

The number of general-purpose registers used by RISC is between 32 and 192. On the contrary, CDCI architecture uses 8-24 GPR.

The register-to-register memory mechanism is used in RISC with independent LOAD and STORE instructions. In contrast, the CISC uses a memory-to-memory tool to perform operations and built-in LOAD and STORE instructions.

RISC has a divided instruction and data cache design. In contrast, CISC uses a unified cache for data and instructions, although the latest systems also use split caches.

Most of the processor control in RISC is wiring without control memory. Conversely, the CISC is micro-coded and uses control memory (ROM), but the modern CISC also uses hard-wired control.

Click this affiliate link to order your AMD Ryzen 7 3700X Desktop Processor

CISC Architecture

The term CISC is an acronym for “Complex Instruction Set Computer.” It is a CPU design plan that is based on single commands, which are skilled in executing multi-step operations.

CISC computers have small programs. They have a vast number of compound instructions, which takes a long time to perform. Here, a single instruction set is protecting in several steps; each instruction set has additional 300 separate instructions. Full instructions are finishing in two to ten machine cycles. In CISC, instruction pipelining is not quickly implemented.

CISC computers have small programs. They have numerous compound instructions, which take a long time to carry out. Here, a single set of instructions is protected using several steps. Each instruction set has an additional 300 separate instructions. Full instructions are finishing in two to ten machine cycles. In CISC, instruction pipelining is not efficiently implementing.

Sought to be faster than the CISC architecture, the RISC chooses to limit the set, but above all, the instructions’ format, to only a few, imposing on all an identical execution time. In this way, a new education can be launched at each clock cycle; this makes pipeline mechanisms possible. This technique’s advantage is that the processor behaves as if there is one instruction executed per clock cycle, which reduces the execution time for all the necessary instructions.

Because each instruction is simple, decoding and execution by the processor are fast, ideally in a single cycle, or even two instructions per cycle, which was not the case with CISC instructions.  With CISC processors, the instructions are generally implemented in the micro-code form in the microprocessor. Each execution of this microcode took a cycle. For a Motorola 68000, the fastest instructions took four processes and the longest up to 160 cycles for divisions.

Cisc Examples


Architecture:  In computational architecture, CISC (complex instruction set computer) is a model of computer architecture.

CISC microprocessors have a set of instructions characterized by being very broad and allowing complex operations between operands located in memory or internal registers, in contrast to the RISC architecture.

This type of architecture makes parallelism between instructions complicated, which is why most high-performance CISC systems today implement a system that converts these complicated instructions into several simple RISC-type instructions, generally called microinstructions.

CISCs belong to the first stream of processor construction, before the development of RISCs. Examples are Motorola 68000, Zilog Z80, and the entire Intel x86 family used in most of today’s personal computers.

The advantages of CISC include the following:

  • Reduces the difficulty of creating compilers.
  • It allows for reducing the total cost of the system.
  • Reduces the costs of creating software.
  • Improves code compaction.
  • It makes debugging easier.

Example of microprocessors based on CISC technology :

  • Intel 8086, 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486.
  • Motorola 68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, 6840.

Example of microprocessors based on CISC technology :

  • MIPS, Millions Instruction Per Second.
  • PA-RISC, Hewlett Packard.
  • SPARC, Scalable Processor Architecture, Sun Microsystems.
  • POWER PC, Apple, Motorola, and IBM.

Click this affiliate link to order your AMD Ryzen 7 3700X Desktop Processor

Is AMD risc or cisc?

Everything your computer does results from its central processing unit performing a series of seemingly simple tasks. 

Steps like loading data from a specific memory address, storing data at another address, and adding numbers together create everything from word processing to online video streaming. RISC and CISC are two types of processor design that dictate how processors perform these tasks. AMD primarily uses SCRC in its processors, but it has some RISC processors.


Complex computer instruction set focuses on a robust set of processor commands that take several steps to complete. For example, controlling the multiplication processor includes the multiple phases of loading memory block numbers into variables, finding the numbers’ product, and putting the result into computer memory. The various stages can take several processor cycles to complete and require a complicated circuit to accommodate the complex commands.


Calculation instruction set reduction takes an approach that emphasizes several small steps over complex commands. For example, running a multiplication problem requires separate commands to load values from memory into variables, multiply the variables together, and store. It requires more code lines, but the processor can quickly accomplish each step in a single cycle.


CISC is the dominant architecture for desktop and laptop processors and what AMD primarily uses in its processors. While the first RISC chips had performance advantages over CISC chips, advances in CDCI tokens closed this gap, and the CISC chip continued to be an integral part of the computer and unique x86 architecture.

ARM partnership

AMD does not use RISC chips in its computer products, but RISC is a famous architecture in micro and embedded computing products. The fact that RISC requires fewer transistors makes RISC chips easier to miniaturize.

Arm Risc or Cisc

Many users who have heard of ARM and x86 confuse the two architectures a bit. In the meantime, they have some differences. There are two main types of architectures:

  • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing).
  • RISC (reduced instruction set calculation).

The CISC includes x86 processors (Intel or AMD), the RISC, as you can already understand, the ARM family. The x86 and arm architectures have their admirers. Thanks to ARM specialists’ efforts focused on energy efficiency and the use of a simple set of instructions, transformers benefited greatly: the mobile phone market began to develop rapidly, and many smartphones were almost equivalent to computers’ capabilities.

In turn, Intel has always been famous for releasing processors that provide high performance and throughput for desktops, laptops, servers, and even supercomputers.

These two families, in their way, have won the hearts of users. But what is their difference? There are several distinguishing features or even characteristics. Let’s take a look at the most important of them.

Processing power

Let’s start analyzing the differences between ARM and x86 architectures with this parameter. A characteristic of RISC teachers is to use as few instructions as possible. And they should be as simple as possible, which gives them benefits not only for engineers but also for software developers.

The philosophy is simple: if the instruction is simple, too many transistors are not needed for the desired circuit. As a consequence, more space is available for something else, or the chips’ size becomes smaller. For this reason, ARM microprocessors began to integrate peripherals, such as graphics processors. A typical example is the Raspberry Pi computer, which has a minimum number of components.

However, the simplicity of the instructions is expensive. Additional instructions are required to perform some tasks, resulting in increased memory consumption and increased time needed to complete tasks.

Click this affiliate link to order your AMD Ryzen 7 3700X Desktop Processor

Risc and CISC Architecture ppt

INTRODUCTION. Let’s first see what the meaning of the terms CISC and RISC is: CISC (complex instruction set computer). – PowerPoint PPT Presentation.

For this, three main areas are considered: Architecture. Process technology. The encapsulation. Process technology refers to the materials and techniques used in the manufacture of the integrated circuit. Encapsulation refers to how a processor blends with its surroundings in a functional system. It is the processor architecture that makes the difference.  Microprogramming is an important and essential feature of almost all CISC architectures. It means that each machine instruction is interpreted by an instruction located in a microprogramming memory. In the sixties, it was the most appropriate technique to develop processors with upward compatibility as well. The compound instructions are internally decoded and executed on an internal ROM.

RISC ARCHITECTURES Seeking to increase the processing speed, based on experiments, it discovered that, with a particular base architecture, the execution of programs became more efficient. Due to a simplified set of instructions, these can be implemented by hardware directly to the CPU.  In the mid-seventies, regarding the frequency use of education in a CISC and the time for its execution; the following was observed: 20% of instructions occupy 80% of total execution time. The instructions, although with other characteristics, are still divided into three groups: a) Transfer. b) Operations. c) Flow control. Instruction set reduction Architecture of type load-store (The only instructions that have memory access are ‘load’ and ‘store’; register by register).Instruction execution. Pipeline The fact that a RISC processor’s simple structure leads to a notable reduction in the integrated circuit’s surface is often used to locate additional functions: Unit for floating-point arithmetic processing. 

ROLE OF COMPILERS IN A RISC SYSTEM The compiler takes on an intelligent mediator between the application program and the microprocessor. SYSTEMS PROCESSING CAPACITY FROM THE USER’S POINT OF VIEW: Reprogrammable system. The system includes or is dedicated.


This study of instruction set xxx86 is not exhaustive. However, it allows you to become aware of the characteristics of a CISC instruction set. In addition to the instructions present in any processor (RISC and CISC), the CISC instruction set introduces a certain richness through:

  • The presence of prefixes which allow an instruction to be declined according to several variants;
  • Implementing several “elaborate” instructions constitute an implementation of the functions present in structured languages.

Click this affiliate link to order your AMD Ryzen 7 3700X Desktop Processor

Luis Gillman
Luis Gillman

Hi, I Am Luis Gillman CA (SA), ACMA
I am a Chartered Accountant (SA) and CIMA (SA) and author of Due Diligence: A strategic and Financial Approach.

The book was published by Lexis Nexis on 2001. In 2010, I wrote the second edition. Much of this website is derived from these two books.

In addition I have published an article entitled the Link Between Due Diligence and Valautions.

Disclaimer: Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the information published on this website is accurate, the author and owners of this website take no responsibility  for any loss or damage suffered as a result of relience upon the information contained therein.  Furthermore the bulk of the information is derived from information in 2018 and use therefore is at your on risk. In addition you should consult professional advice if required.